Spinal Osteoarthritis

Spinal Osteoarthritis


Spinal osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative joint disease or spinal arthritis, is a condition that affects the joints of the spine. It is a form of osteoarthritis, which is the most common type of arthritis in patients.

Osteoarthritis occurs when the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of bones gradually breaks down over time. In the case of spinal osteoarthritis, this cartilage in the joints of the spine wears away, leading to bone-on-bone contact. This can also result in pain, stiffness, and other related symptoms.


The actual cause of spinal osteoarthritis is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a combination of factors. Here are some potential causes and risk factors associated with the development of spinal osteoarthritis –

  1. Age – As people age, the cartilage in their joints naturally undergoes wear and tear. Spinal osteoarthritis is more common in older individuals, typically occurring after the age of 45.
  2. Genetics – There may be a genetic component involved in the development of osteoarthritis. Certain genes may make an individual more susceptible to the condition.
  3. Previous injuries or trauma – Previous injuries to the spine, such as fractures or dislocations, can increase the risk of developing osteoarthritis in the affected joints.
  4. Repetitive stress on the spine – Activities or occupations that involve repetitive movements or excessive stress on the spine can contribute to the development of spinal osteoarthritis. Examples include heavy lifting, improper lifting techniques, and occupations that require frequent bending or twisting of the spine.
  5. Obesity – Excess body weight places additional stress on the joints, including the spine. This can accelerate the degeneration of the cartilage in the spine and increase the risk of osteoarthritis.
  6. Joint abnormalities or malalignment – Structural abnormalities in the spine, such as misaligned vertebrae or abnormal curvature (such as scoliosis), can lead to uneven distribution of forces on the joints, contributing to the development of osteoarthritis.
  7. Joint diseases – Certain conditions that affect the joints, such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout, can increase the likelihood of developing osteoarthritis in the spine.
  8. Hormonal factors – Some research suggests that hormonal changes, particularly in women after menopause, may play a role in the development of osteoarthritis. Estrogen deficiency may contribute to cartilage degeneration.

These factors may increase the risk of developing spinal osteoarthritis, but they do not guarantee its occurrence. Osteoarthritis is a complex condition, and its development is influenced by a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors.


The symptoms of spinal osteoarthritis can vary from person to person, and the severity of symptoms can also differ. Here are some common symptoms associated with spinal osteoarthritis –

  1. Pain – Persistent or intermittent pain in the affected area of the spine is a primary symptom. The pain may be localized to the neck (cervical spine), upper back (thoracic spine), or lower back (lumbar spine). The pain is typically described as a dull ache or stiffness.
  2. Stiffness – Stiffness in the spine is a common symptom of spinal osteoarthritis. It can make it difficult to bend, twist, or rotate the spine. The stiffness is often worse in the morning or after periods of inactivity and tends to improve with movement.
  3. Reduced range of motion – As the arthritis progresses, the range of motion in the spine may decrease. It can become challenging to perform activities that require flexibility or bending of the spine.
  4. Radiating pain – Spinal osteoarthritis can cause pain that radiates from the spine to other areas of the body. This pain may radiate into the shoulders, buttocks, or down the legs, resembling the symptoms of sciatica.
  5. Muscle weakness – Osteoarthritis in the spine can lead to muscle weakness in the affected area. This weakness can affect the arms, legs, or both, depending on the location of the affected joints.
  6. Numbness or tingling – In some cases, spinal osteoarthritis may compress the nerves in the spine, leading to sensations of numbness, tingling, or pins and needles in the arms or legs. This can occur if the osteoarthritis causes spinal stenosis or nerve root compression.
  7. Decreased flexibility – The degeneration of the joints and the development of bone spurs can result in a loss of flexibility in the spine. This can impact everyday activities and make movements involving the spine more difficult.

These symptoms can also be present in other spinal conditions, so it’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Diagnosis and Test

To diagnose spinal osteoarthritis, healthcare professionals may use various diagnostic tests and procedures to assess the condition of the spine and confirm the presence of osteoarthritis. Here are some common diagnostic tests used for spinal osteoarthritis –

1. Medical history and physical examination – The healthcare provider will begin by discussing your symptoms, medical history, and any relevant risk factors. They will then perform a physical examination, assessing your range of motion, joint tenderness, and any signs of spinal deformities or abnormalities.

2. Imaging tests

  • X-rays – X-ray imaging is often the first step in diagnosing spinal osteoarthritis. X-rays can show the presence of bone spurs, joint space narrowing, and changes in the alignment of the spine.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – MRI scans use magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the spine. This test provides a more comprehensive view of the bones, cartilage, discs, ligaments, and nerves, allowing for a better evaluation of the condition of the spine and the extent of degeneration.
  • Computed Tomography (CT) scan – CT scans may be used to provide detailed cross-sectional images of the spine. This test is particularly useful for assessing bony structures and detecting any abnormalities that may contribute to spinal osteoarthritis.

3. Blood tests – While there is no specific blood test for diagnosing spinal osteoarthritis, blood tests can help rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms, such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout.

4. Joint fluid analysis (arthrocentesis) – In some cases, a doctor may perform joint fluid analysis by inserting a needle into the affected joint and extracting a small sample of synovial fluid. The fluid can be examined for signs of inflammation and to rule out other causes of joint pain.

The diagnosis of spinal osteoarthritis is usually based on a combination of these diagnostic tests along with a thorough evaluation of the patient’s symptoms and medical history. Consulting with a healthcare professional is essential for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan.


The treatment of spinal osteoarthritis aims to manage symptoms, reduce pain, improve function, and enhance the individual’s quality of life. The treatment approach may vary depending on the severity of symptoms and the individual’s specific needs. Here are some common treatment options for spinal osteoarthritis –

1. Medications

  • Over-the-counter pain relievers – Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or naproxen sodium can help reduce pain and inflammation.
  • Topical creams or ointments – Applying topical analgesics directly to the affected area may provide temporary pain relief.
  • Prescription medications – In some cases, a healthcare provider may prescribe stronger pain medications or muscle relaxants to manage severe pain or muscle spasms.

2. Physical therapy 

  • Exercise – A physical therapist can design a customized exercise program to strengthen the muscles supporting the spine, improve flexibility, and promote better posture.
  • Manual therapy – Techniques such as joint mobilization or manipulation performed by a physical therapist can help improve joint function and reduce pain.
  • Heat or cold therapy – Applying heat or cold to the affected area can help alleviate pain and reduce inflammation.

3. Lifestyle modifications

  • Weight management – Maintaining a healthy weight or losing excess weight can reduce stress on the joints, including the spine.
  • Exercise – Engaging in regular low-impact exercises such as walking, swimming, or cycling can help improve joint function, strengthen muscles, and maintain flexibility.
  • Proper body mechanics – Practicing proper lifting techniques and body mechanics can help minimize strain on the spine.
  • Assistive devices – Using assistive devices such as braces or orthotic supports can provide additional support to the spine and alleviate strain.

4. Injections

  • Corticosteroid injections – Injecting corticosteroids directly into the affected joints can help reduce inflammation and provide temporary pain relief.
  • Hyaluronic acid injections – These injections may be considered for individuals who do not respond to corticosteroids. Hyaluronic acid acts as a lubricant and shock absorber in the joints.

5. Surgery

  • In severe cases where conservative treatments are ineffective, surgery may be recommended. Surgical options may include spinal fusion (joining two or more vertebrae together) or laminectomy (removal of a portion of the vertebral bone to relieve pressure on the nerves).

A healthcare professional to determine the most appropriate treatment plan for spinal osteoarthritis. Treatment may involve a combination of these approaches, and the goal is to improve symptoms, maintain function, and enhance the individual’s quality of life.


Schedule a regular follow-up appointment with your healthcare provider. These visits allow for a comprehensive assessment of your condition, monitoring of symptoms, and adjustment of treatment plans if necessary. Communicate any changes in symptoms or new concerns to your healthcare provider during follow-up visits. They can help address any pain, stiffness, or functional limitations you may be experiencing and make adjustments to your treatment plan accordingly.

During follow-up visits, your healthcare provider may review your medication regimen to ensure it is still appropriate and effective. They may adjust the dosage, switch medications, or introduce new medications based on your symptoms and response to treatment. If you are undergoing physical therapy or following an exercise program, regular follow-up visits allow the therapist to monitor your progress, modify exercises as needed, and provide guidance on maintaining an appropriate level of physical activity.

Remember to communicate openly with your healthcare provider, ask questions, and actively participate in your treatment plan during follow-up visits. Regular follow-up is crucial for managing spinal osteoarthritis effectively and ensuring optimal outcomes for your condition.