Neuromodulation Treatment by Dr. Vivek Loomba


Neuromodulation is a modulation technique in which nervous activity is stimulated, inhibited, and regulated in the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous system for numerous disorders. Diverse specialties are adopted in this field of medicine for improving the functionality of the body. 

How does Neuromodulation work?

Neuromodulation is a process by which the activation of nerves happens that produces biological responses with the help of plantable and implantable agents. These agents are injected in tiny doses in the body at the affected area. The doses administered are in the range of 1/300 and are enough for a reduction in side effects and the efficacy of treatment. At present, neurostimulation devices are used for a wide range of applications such as –

  • Electrodes to the brain
  • The Spinal cord nerves
  • Peripheral nerves 

These devices provide a lead connection from the pulse generator and power source that helps in generating electrical stimulation. An electric current in lower dosage can be passed from the generator to the nerve for stimulation of pain signals where they were absolutely vague. 

Types of Neuromodulators

The neuromodulators are designed on the basis of various disorders in the world. Some examples of disorders are –

  • Noradrenaline (Noradrenaline system) – It regulates both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. It provides cellular energy metabolism and is implied to treat inflammation and neuroplasticity. The locus coeruleus is a noradrenergic signal that plays a crucial role in improving the plasticity, learning, and memory of the brain.
  • Dopamine (Dopamine system) – It is involved to regulate rewards, approach behavior, exploration, and various aspects of cognition. Changes in neuromodulator functionality entirely depends on personality change. It eventually results in varying patterns of behavior, motivation, emotion, and cognition from the original traits of a human being. However, there is no concrete evidence that specifies trait manipulation in an individual. Still, it is assumed to cause a significant change in patterns arising such as from sadness to anger and interest to disgust.
  • Serotonin (Serotonin system) –  It is majorly associated with the gastrointestinal tract for regulating bowel function and movements. It regulates your body’s mood, anxiety, and happiness levels. It is therefore also called a “feel good” chemical that also helps with good sleep, bone health, sexual health, hunger, digestion, and nausea. Thus, overall it helps in improving your health conditions.
  • Acetylcholine (Cholinergic system) – It plays a huge role in brain functioning and muscle contraction. Low levels of acetylcholine help in treating several diseases such as 
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
  • Myasthenia gravis

The hypothalamus is important in regulating metabolism. It helps in the adaption of brain signals for managing stress responses by causing an increase in the release of the ACh signals around brain-specific areas.


Neuromodulation treatments are invasive procedures that come with certain side effects such as bleeding, infection, blood clots, and reactions to medications. Some of the neuromodulation treatments are applied on the basis of the evaluation of the disorder in patients. 

Neuromodulation therapies for electrical stimulation are –

Neuromodulation therapies for targeted drug delivery are –

Neuromodolgoical Therapies are specifically used when surgery does not work and has also raised concerns about tolerance, addiction, and adverse side effects. Therefore, neuromodulation therapies are used for targeted treatment of the brain or nervous system of the body.